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Gardening adventures in a small urban space
Hand Pollination of Watermelon Flowers
A few years ago I purchased some pepper plants from a nearby garden center. They sat on the balcony for a few days before I got around to transplanting them and I noticed that the newest leaves on a couple of the plants had a number of very tiny green succulent insects on them. I brushed off as many as I could and went ahead with transplanting them.
When I checked again a couple days later, the bugs were back and this time there were twice as many on more plants. Eventually every one of the dozen pepper plants had these bugs stuck to them. They tended to cling to the underside of the leaves and thrived in and around the open and unopened plant flower buds. Most of the plants failed to produce peppers and the few that did just gave me peppers that were stunted and irregularly shaped.This poor bambino eggplant flower, as well as the rest of the plant, was covered with aphids. The aphids love my eggplants just as much as my peppers.
I didn't know what they were then but I certainly know them now. Aphids survive by sucking the sap from a plants leaves. Some plants they like and some they don't. There are different species of aphid that prefer different plants. I did't know what mine were - I didn't really care. I just wanted to get rid of them. The problem is, they multiply at an astonishing rate. The females reproduce asexually by a process known as parthenogenesis. They do not need males to reproduce and for most of the season, all they produce are female offspring. They live between 20 and 40 days and can produce something like 5 offspring each day from the time they are a week old. Translation: huge colonies in a short amount of time.
I tried squishing them all whenever I found them but when I did I sometimes damaged the plants so I resorted to a mild mix of soap and water. You can get special insecticidal soap that is suppose to help but I opted for dish soap. With a small paint brush I dabbed my soapy solution on the leaves. First lightly, then excessively. Aphids typically cling to the underside of the leaves making it hard to find them all. I spent lots of time crouched over these plants and when I was finished all I did was make a mess. Much of the plants I had soaped up were now dying. And within a few days the aphids were back in full force, just like cockroaches.
My next attempt to get rid of the aphids was to blow them off the plants with a squirt bottle. In a garden, I could just blast them off with a hose but I can't do that on the balcony. The squirt bottle method worked quite well and didn't kill the plants but the affect was only temporary. I remember seeing aphids in the soil, making their way back to the stems of the plants, marching their way up to the tender new leaves at the top.
Aphids have a number of natural predators. Lady Bugs are one. Lacewing larvae are another. Neither of them show up on my balcony very often. That's the problem with growing plants in a semi-enclosed environment. Without natural predators to keep them in-check, pests like aphids thrive. Recently I've notice hover-fly larva occasionally inching their way around my plants and devouring aphid colonies but once the larva transform into flies, they leave and eventually the aphid return.A small family of aphids. Trust me, there will be more.
At some point the population will produce winged females who fly off to seek out a good place to start new colonies. I've read that certain colours and shinny objects can distract them and keep these winged aphids away from your plants. But I think in most cases it's just a matter of time before one makes a successful landing. In the fall, some colonies will start producing male aphids and these mate with the females that result in aphid eggs that can survive the winter. The year after the big aphid infestation I grew peppers again, this time from seed. And once again, the aphids were back. I'm convinced these started with hatchings from the last infestation. Fortunately I didn't put too much effort into peppers that season but the few I did grow now presented me with another problem.
Aphids excrete a sweet liquid when they feed known as honeydew. It tends to attract a number of other insect species. It's easy to spot - just look for shinny wet patches on the tops of lower leaves and chances are good that there is an aphid colony on one of the leaves above it. That summer there must have been a wasps nest someplace nearby because I had this constant swarm of wasps coming onto the balcony to collect the aphid excretions from the leaves of the peppers. There were enough of them that we just couldn't enjoy the balcony and the season was a loss. I'd get out there to water everything but that was all. The plants got really wild and bushy that year.The appearance of winged aphids means it's just a matter of time before you start seeing colonies on other plants, if you haven't already.
I've seen aphids every year since that first outbreak but not in the same numbers I first had. I don't grow peppers much anymore. The aphids also seem to like some of my annuals. I had some marigolds this year that had huge numbers of aphids but only on the flower buds and stems. This time I believe they hitched a ride in from the garden center. Even some purple basil I got at the same place had a few aphids but they were easy to pick off and didn't persist. I'm pretty sure purple basil is not their preferred diet. I've also had them on potato and broccoli plants but they didn't seem to bother those much and the colonies didn't thrive.
My new method for getting rid of aphids is to not accept any plant on my balcony that has them. I just don't have the time to deal with them. The last trick I used to get rid of them was neem oil. It didn't seem to work but it does work great for controlling spider mites and mildew. Ideally I should be scrubbing my containers at the end of every season. Perhaps replacing my soil or rotating it or something. But I just don't have time for that. A healthy plant can manage with a few aphids sucking on it. On some annuals, with just the flowers and buds infested, I've pinched off the infected growth and let the plant survive. But there were some annuals I uprooted and tossed. It's unfortunate, but sometimes that's what you have to do when growing on the balcony.
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